Here is a great resource for you! A massive glossary of viticulture and enology terms hosted by eViticulture.
Whether you are an enophile, a plant nerd, or just a casual wine drinker there are definitions on here that will increase your depth of understanding, and maybe even lead to some better questions next time you go wine tasting!
Here are some examples from the glossary:
Bilateral cordon: Extensions of the trunk in the form of two permanent horizontal branches each supported by a wire, extending in opposite directions and from which fruiting positions originate. Examples are high cordon, with downward shoot orientation, and low cordon, with vertical shoot positioning.
Botrytis: Botrytis bunch rot or gray mold is a fungal disease that infects fruits and occasionally shoots and leaves; caused by Botrytis cinerea. The benevolent form is known as “noble rot” and is responsible for some of the world’s finest sweet wines.
Chaptalizing: The addition of sugar to the must or juice before fermentation to make up for deficiencies in vine-ripened sugar levels.
ELISA: Acronym for Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. A test that can be used to confirm the presence of specific proteins signifying the presence of certain pathogens.
Lees: The solid sediments (such as dead yeast, seeds, and pulp) left after fermentation. These will be deposited at the bottom of the fermenting barrel or tank. Different winemaking methods are used to manage the lees.
Methoxypyrazines: A class of chemical compounds that produces herbaceous odors (e.g,. green bell pepper). In white wine (e.g., Sauvignon blanc), the odors can be desirable. However, in red wines (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon) high levels of methoxypyrazines are very undesirable.
Sulfites: Sulfur-based compounds that occur naturally during wine fermentation, but are also often added before, during, or after fermentation. They protect wine from oxidation and the activity of undesirable microorganisms, particularly bacteria. Sulfites are typically added at higher levels to white and/or sweet wines to prevent browning and/or spoilage.
Titratable acidity: Acidity of a juice, must or wine determined from the amount of base needed to titrate the wine to a specific end point pH. Usually sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is used for titration to an end point pH of 8.2 in the US and 7.0 in France. Titratable acidity is reported in g/L tartaric acid equivalents and often abbreviated as TA.
Vitis vinifera: European grape native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Also known as Old World or European grapes. Also see American grape.